KABISSA-FAHAMU NEWSLETTER 18

The truth about the Etireno may be less dramatic than first suggested, but far more typical of west and central Africa's exploding trade in children - and far more insidious for that.

Human Rights Watch, the international monitoring and advocacy organization, seeks a director to lead its division on women’s rights. The Executive Director of the Women’s Rights Division is the organization’s chief strategist, advisor and spokesperson in relation to its work around the world on the human rights of women. She or he is also a key member of the organization’s central managements. APPLY BY MAY 15, 2001.

DESCRIPTION: The researcher will investigate human rights developments in a number of Middle East and North Africa countries and work to publicize and curtail human rights abuses through writing and advocacy. The researcher will be based in New York, Washington, London or Brussels and should be prepared to spend periods of time traveling to the region. APPLY BY MAY 14, 2001.

Tagged under: 18, Contributor, Jobs, Resources

For: all doctors, nurses, dentists, pharmacists and other health professionals. Location: Accra and Kumasi, Ghana. Time: Monday 14th and 16th May 2001, respectively. Moderated by Professor Richard Smith, Editor British Medical Journal.

2nd International Health Conference: 'Reshaping the Nursing' with a half-day interactive workshop on 21 June 2002.

INTERIGHTS now seeks a Commonwealth Law Officer to maintain and develop a comprehensive programme providing worldwide access to comparative Commonwealth human rights law, will be based in London and will join a staff of fifteen, including eight other lawyers, in a multicultural and self-sufficient environment. Salary c. £23,000.

Tagged under: 18, Contributor, Jobs, Resources

Egypt is inviting leaders from the developing and the industrialized world: leaders in science, government, NGOs, the media, farmers groups, philanthropy, academia, the private sector and the civil society to meet in Egypt. The event should cover the multi-faceted dimensions of the biotechnology debate: the scientific, ethical, and safety issues as well as the regulatory, IPR and trade and economic issues. Thus we must bring representation from the ministries of agriculture, environment, health, education, scientific research, foreign affairs and international economy and trade who ultimately represent their countries at so many different venues: the WTO, FAO, WHO, UN, CSD, UNEP, CBD, WIPO, UPOV, and so many more.

Established primarily as a training institution for the purpose of continuing education. Its objective is to assist in the building of intellectual and functional capacity of professionals, practitioners, activists, and other functionaries whose work includes a legal component. All courses offered by the Institute are designed to suit the requirements of working people who wish to continue education. The Institute offers four types of courses. These are Specialised, Tailor-made, Professional, and General Courses.

infoDev request for proposals to design an Internet-based platform designed to share information, tools, and services about development worldwide. infoDev will award a grant of up to $60,000 to develop the E-Government Toolkit. It is expected that the toolkit should be completed within six to eight months of the award. The authors of the E-Government toolkit may also be invited to a World Bank workshop on E-Government in Washington, D.C. on June 11 and 12, 2001. Please note: All proposals are due by Friday, May 4, 2001

Applications are invited for a number of PhD or DrPH studentships. Research projects may be undertaken in any area of clinical, field, socialscience or associated laboratory work that is relevant to the control of malaria. Scholarships cover home fees,living expenses, some research expenses and may include re-entry grant for developing country scientists. Applications from scientists working in malaria endemic countries are encouraged, particularly from those involved in malaria control. Application Deadline: 15 May 2001 for studies commencing in October 2001.

The development and use of Information Communication Tools (ICTs) for social change has already seen an impressive evolution. Recent technological developments have made the Internet a viable and effective means of collating and disseminating information on civil society issues. Civil society organisations (CSOs) and other information providers are increasingly disseminating information electronically; hardware and software costs are decreasing; increasing numbers of CSOs are starting to use the Internet, and there has been rapid growth in the number and quality of Internet access providers.

During the past few years Southern African CSOs have experienced a number of critical challenges which continue to impact on their work in support of development issues in the region, including changes in the socio-political environment, the availability of development funding and the ability of organisations to adapt to change in general.

Embracing and integrating ICTs as a tool for communication, exchange of information and other operational and organisational requirements therefore represents huge opportunities, as well as challenges, in the process of shaping, transforming and consolidating the role and contribution of CSOs.

This situation represents the operational environment of the Southern African Non-Governmental Organisation (SANGONeT), a very unique organisation which is the only Southern African CSO dedicated to providing ICT services to the local CSO sector.

SANGONeT, previously known as WorkNet, has been providing networking, information and training services to Southern African civil society organisations (CSOs) since 1987. It is an association incorporated under Section 21 of the Companies Act in South Africa and was established to facilitate communication and information exchange between trade unions, social justice organisations and the international community during the apartheid era.

The emergence of the World Wide Web coincided with the transformation of the South African political landscape during the early 1990s, resulting in much freer access to communication tools than before. In this changed environment, SANGONeT operated as a full ISP with a holistic approach to the provision of services. While dial-up, e-mail, online announcement services and mailing lists formed the core SANGONeT services, website development and training generated the bulk of its revenue.

Despite initial technical challenges, SANGONeT has grown and gained a wealth of experience in working with users with little computer literacy. As a result, SANGONeT has developed an increasing understanding of the information needs and requirements of Southern African CSOs. It views ICTs as a tool that could build the capacity of users and the communities they serve, and therefore emphasises the need to integrate a variety of information-related tasks through the use of ICTs. SANGONeT works closely with targeted communities and institutions. Each group’s needs are addressed in a tailored way. Internet tools are crafted to match their application requirements, be it discussion forums for lobbying and advocacy purposes, or gathering information to assist communities in gaining access to information resources, or popularising the work of an organisation through the World Wide Web.

A survey conducted on SANGONeT clients in July 1998 found that most clients had been using e-mail and the World Wide Web for approximately 2-3 years. The biggest obstacle to expanded ICT usage could be attributed to a common skepticism amongst CSOs of the benefits of e-mail and web-based usage, while some CSOs are also unaware of the potential for ICTs to enhance and contribute to their everyday functioning.

However, SANGONeT has also identified a growing number of organisations which have capitalised on the benefits of using ICTs in their work. An integral part of SANGONeT’s approach is to introduce development activists and practitioners to new technologies and to raise awareness about how ICTs could enhance organisations’ effectiveness, thereby promoting a mind shift in the way communication and information management is approached in an organisation. These include trade unionists, CSO activists, development workers, librarians, women and media workers in South Africa and other parts of Africa.

SANGONeT’s range of ICT services include web publishing and hosting, database development, network management and IT training. SANGONeT's training courses are structured to accommodate both those who are exploring the possibility of using the Internet and those who already have ICTs in place, but are not using it to its full potential. SANGONeT's training activities are therefore aimed at two interrelated levels, namely skills training and the promotion of a mind shift in the way communication and information management is approached in an organisation.

As part of its focus on ICT service provision and capacity-building, SANGONeT, in conjunction with the Commission on Gender Equality (CGE), launched Women’sNet in 1998, a project aimed to empower South African women to use information and communication technologies more effectively in their struggle towards advancing women's equality. Women'sNet seeks to make technology accessible and less intimidating to women, provide gender-sensitive training and support, link people working in related projects and help them find tools and resources on the Internet, create a platform for women's voices and issues and help distribute information in formats accessible to women not directly linked to the Internet.

During January 2000 SANGONeT decided to restructure its core business from being an access and information provider to being an information facilitator. As a result, SANGONeT's new mission is as follows: "A facilitator in the effective and empowering use of information communication technology (ICT) tools by development and social justice actors in Africa. SANGONeT exists with the purpose of sharing information, building capacity, linking people and organisations through the use of ICTs in Africa."

As part of its new focus SANGONeT will cease to provide dial-up services, with the emphasis instead on the development of various new information products and services. This will include Internet portals on general and specific development issues of relevance to Southern African CSOs. An important dimension of the focus on information products and services will be to complement SANGONeT’s other products and services, and vice versa, thus providing both existing and new clients with more integrated ICT solutions.

SANGONeT is not a membership organisation, but as the only CSO ICT service provider and with a vast number of CSO clients, it also has the responsibility to reflect the views and positions of CSOs on ICT-related issues. As a result, it is an active roleplayer in various South African initiatives in this regard, as well as on an international level through its membership of the Association for Progressive Communications (APC).

During the past year SANGONeT’s work has been recognised through a number of local and international awards. In July 2000, Performance Management Review (PMR) awarded SANGONeT the Silver Arrow Award for excellence as a South African Internet service provider. Websites designed by SANGONeT have also won several awards, including the ‘Best of the web’ award and LabourStart pick-of-the-week for the SADTU website, the iNet Bronze Award and the International Association of Web Masters & Designers’ Golden Award, as well as inclusion on Ananzi’s Top 10 Websites of the Week for the SANGONeT corporate website. Women’sNet received an award for ‘Innovative use of New Media’ at the Highway Africa conference during September 2000 in Grahamstown.

Reflecting on the future, some of the main challenges facing SANGONeT are to continue to develop ICT products and services relevant to the needs of the Southern African CSO sector, including the introduction and application of new technologies, as well as to expand SANGONeT’s regional identity and impact.

Tagged under: 18, David Barnard, Features, Governance

KABISSA-FAHAMU NEWSLETTER 17

The Electronic Community - Enhancing NGO Productivity and Capacity through Technology and Communication.

Attached is our first copy of our African capacity building newsletter - "Talents" for your perusal. Talents is a publication that is dedicated,
purely and simply to the capacity building of African civil societyorganisations. The belief behind this publication is that the time has come
for the introduction of a vehicle that focuses on capacity building and capacity building only. By facilitating debate, promoting dialogue and
encouraging analysis, research and self-discovery and challenging existing paradigms, Talents can contribute towards more conscious approaches to
capacity building that are driven by and reflect an African sustainability agenda. "Talents" will seek to promote African thought and the exploration
of alternative solutions to capacity building challenges facing African CSOs in a manner that reflects the aspirations and priorities of African
communities.

It is hoped that, over time, the humble beginning that this inaugural edition of Talents represents, will grow into a respected publication on
capacity building on the continent. For this to happen we will need to draw on the inspiration, encouragement and support of all of us. Any support
whether an idea, a thought, an article or whisper of encouragement will bring us a little nearer to that community of African civil society
organisations we envision.

The 2000 CPI relaesed by Transparency International (TI) shows that the included 5 Nile Basin countries (Ethiopia, Egypt, Tanzania, Uganda & Kenya) of the 90 countries surveyed occupy the lower 1/3 of the ranks, i.e. perceived to be more corrupt. The TI survey included only 90 countries of the world.

The April/May Bretton Woods Update is now on the web in both HTML and easy to print PDF formats. Our bi-monthly digest of news and analysis on World Bank and IMF-related issues contains 43 varied stories this issue, complete with web links and contact details.

Rebel attacks on refugees returning home to Sierra Leone cast doubt on a new United Nations plan for "safe passage" through rebel-held territory, Human Rights Watch has said.

Amnesty International expressed concern today at the significant increase in cases of torture and unlawful detention in Burundi. "Since the Forces nationales de libération (FNL), National Liberation Forces, attacked and occupied parts of the capital, Bujumbura, in late February and early March, there has been a noticeable escalation of torture by members of the Burundian security forces. We are also investigating a number of cases where people arrested have been taken to unknown places of detention and may have been extrajudicially executed", the organization said.

CORRUPTION governs a South Africa led by people who are not serious about fighting it, and steps have to be taken to ensure the country does not "go the same way" as Third World Africa, says graft-busting Judge Willem Heath. Heath, the controversial head of the special investigating unit, said the government was not dedicated in the fight against corruption.

THE president of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Joseph Kabila, says he is fully in control of the situation in his country, after dismissing his entire government cabinet on the eve of a visit to Germany.

AN interim report by a controversial Aids advisory panel to the South African government shows little more than a predictable chasm between dissidents and orthodox scientists, say analysts.

Uganda's President Yoweri Museveni has filed his defense against a petition aimed at annulling his March 12 re-election that was lodged by rival Kizza Besigye.

As a long-term lender to low-income countries, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) also tackles problems of poverty and growth. Should the IMF withdraw from development finance leaving it up to donors and the World Bank, as critics suggest? Is it appropriate for the Fund to return to its traditional role? And could the World Bank provide more effective support for necessary structural adjustment?

Sachs to Announce Plan for 'Massive New Effort' Aimed at Fighting AIDS in Africa. Conference to Address Children Orphaned by AIDS Begins in Uganda.

Other universities may be striving to market their courses to the Internet masses in hopes of dot-com wealth. But the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has chosen the opposite path: to post virtually all its course materials on the Web, free to everybody.

South African Players Football Union, a COSATU affiliates, condemns with strongest terms the manner in which soccer, in particular, is being treated by the Cape Town Unicity Council.

April 3, 2001, Volume 7, Issue 14

Migrants Rights International has just launched a discussion group by email on the World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance ( WCRX ). Participants, approximately 300, are representatives from civil society organizations with a special interest and or expertise on migration issues vis-a-vis the preparations and outcome of WCRX.

All judges presiding over the parliamentary election challenges have adjourned for the April recess. No trials were held last week. Of the trials held two weeks ago, Shurugwi and Chiredzi North have been completed while Makoni West is scheduled to reconvene on 14 May.

Following more than four years of coordinated studies in ten African countries, The North-South Institute have launched Demanding Dignity: Women Confronting Economic Reforms in Africa. A groundbreaking and innovative study of African women’s struggles to deal with gender-bias in financial and economic policies, the 300-page volume covers 13 case studies in the countries of Togo, Mali, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Nigeria, Kenya, Chad and Ghana.

Zimbabwe Minister of State for Information and Publicity Jonathan Moyo has filed a Z$450,000 (US$8,000) lawsuit against "The Daily News" for publishing alleged defamatory articles about him, "The Herald" reported on 30 March 2001.

The co-operative sector has a vital role to play in the economy. Many of COSATU’s structures and members, as well as retrenched former members, are active in co-operatives. Therefore the federation welcomes the opportunity to comment on the Department of Agriculture’s Draft Co-operatives Bill.

“Action Without Borders” has updated its NGO-Service “Idealist”. It now enables individuals and organizations everywhere to tell Idealist exactly what information they want from among the job openings, volunteer opportunities, internships, events and resources, and then receive this information automatically, by email, according to their needs, interests and location.

Tagged under: 17, Contributor, Jobs, Resources

The Council for Economic Empowerment of Women of Africa, Uganda chapter (CEEWA-U) with support from International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is implementing an Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) Project to promote Community Economic Empowerment. The main objective of the project is to enable women entrepreneurs and women organisations that promote enterprise development to explore ways and means of exploiting ICTs for community economic empowerment.

All operational research studies as well as planning documents and some background information of the Reproductive Health Project in Tanzania are now available on the AFRO-NETS Server for downloading. Study topics include service quality (including youth friendliness), community based activities and adolescent reproductive health.

When prices for a farmer's harvest fall, as they have in recent years, despair haunts rural families and communities. Farmers invest less in their own land and children leave home, searching for a better life in cities. But farmers, especially those in the poorest nations, are not just battling a global oversupply of grain. In a distressing number of cases, they are fighting against the financial power of the world's richest governments.

The joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission's Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Task Force on Foods Derived from Biotechnology have made significant progress in setting standards for foods derived from biotechnology, the two UN agencies announced this week.

Bad weather has affected harvest prospects in southern Africa, says a special report from FAO's Global Information and Early Warning System. A prolonged dry spell in January hit parts of Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland and Zimbabwe and subsequent heavy rains caused flooding in low-lying areas of Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia.

This document from the program of the United Nations Research Institute in Social Development (UNIRSD), produced with the support of the Dutch Ministry for Development Cooperation, is the first report published by the UNIRSD research project on information technology and social development in Senegal. Its final objective consists of improving the level of debate on information technology policies.

Today's students represent two key ingredients for tomorrow's companies: a
future employee base and a future consumer base. DigAfrica reports on how
businesses and philanthropists are working to provide technology for
students that need it most.

The Tutsi-dominated army fought Hutu rebels on Sunday in a southern suburb of Burundi's capital where officials said 37 combatants were killed in clashes last week.

The Chairman of the Commission on Human Rights, Leandro Despouy, this morning informed the Commission of the decision made by Mary Robinson, the High Commissioner for Human Rights, to accept the extension of her mandate by one year.

Non-governmental organizations speaking before the Commission on Human Rights have pressed such issues as debt relief for poor nations, rural land reform, and greater efforts to reduce extreme poverty as they commented on the status of economic, social and cultural rights around the world.

"Mutuelles de sante en Afrique: Caracteristiques et mise en place-Manuel de formateurs". This publication explains what is a "mutuelle de sante" (mutual health organization) and how to set up such a scheme.

The information economy has flourished and is now evolving into a networking economy that is radically transforming the world of work. But will this revolution be a powerful vehicle for gender equality, or will increasing numbers of women find themselves caught on the wrong side of the digital divide?

We People Living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda wish to register our concern at the consistent derogatory remarks made by the President and members of his cabinet.
For a long time we have complained about the cynicism, conspiracy, discrimination and condemnation of People Living with HIV/AIDS. The
statements, which have been made recently by the President, are intended to incite the public and society to marginalize, discriminate and ostracize us.

COSATU and NUM have made a joint submission on the Minerals Development Draft Bill. They urge government to resist the hysterical campaign of the Chamber of Mines to try to blackmail the government into amending the Draft Bill in
favour of the mining companies so they can continue their unfettered exploitation of the country’s mineral resources.

A Lagos based lawyer and human rights activist, Mr. Femi Falana has observed that laws alone cannot successfully eliminate corruption in any society. Speaking on Anti-Corruption Measures: Legal Perspective at a seminar organized by Life Theological Seminary of the Four Square Church, Ikorodu, Falana said a government that is seriously determined to fight corruption must create an environment that will make corruption unattractive.

Tagged under: 17, Contributor, Corruption, Governance

The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), major backers of economic reforms in developing countries, have once again unveiled a new poverty reduction approach which they claim gives borrowing countries an opportunity to determine their own strategies. However, critics have been quick to dismiss it as just one of the many faces of the Bretton Woods institutions, which have repeatedly failed to answer development needs of the world's poorest countries ever since they came into being more than half a century ago.

Democracy, Governance and Human Rights Programme Paper 3 Efficiency, Accountability and Implementation: Public Sector Reform in East and Southern Africa, Ole Therkildsen. Gender Justice, Development and Rights: Selected papers.

The Internet is Africa's political corrupticians' nightmare. In other words, news-media-information censorship by political dictators is curtailed at the door of the Internet.

Breaking news straight from ITWeb's news room!

Join together in cooperation with HORIZON to find, encourage and develop
solutions to problems in health, environment, population, and development
that exist throughout the world and to help empower children, youth, young
professionals, and others through their participation as HORIZON Solutions
Site users, interns, research fellows and volunteers.

You can download the full version of the SA "Presidential Aids Advisory Report, March 2001" either as a PDF or WORD file.

News about poverty and development issues.

Cameroon became the fifth African country on Wednesday to strike a deal with
major pharmaceutical companies to ensure cheap access to AIDS drugs.
GlaxoSmithKline, the world's largest supplier of HIV/AIDS medicines, said
the West African country had reached agreement with five leading drug firms
under a UN initiative.

The government has rebuked European Union criticism of its controversial AIDS policy, saying that Europe should instead learn from South Africa's success in combating an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease.

In the wake of quakes, emotional aid proves hardest to deliver. New tremors
rock the sub-continent while aid agencies and health workers are still
struggling to tackle quake trauma, especially in children. Unicef explains
how the emotional after-effects of a disaster are much harder to identify
and address than immediate relief needs.

Roundtable on the Demography of Forced Migration, Committee on Population,
Holly E. Reed and Charles B. Keely, Editors, U.S. National Research Council,
2001. Millions of people uprooted by war, famine or natural disasters are on the
move in countries across the world, seeking shelter, food and other necessities of life. Using case studies from Cambodia, Kosovo, North Korea and Rwanda, a new collection of papers from the National Research Council examines mortality patterns during recent forced migrations and suggests how these patterns may change during this century.

News and comment on South Africa's Presidential AIDS Advisory Panel Report.

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide.
Their emergence as the predominant health problem in wealthy countries
accompanied economic development. As a result, NCDs are often referred to as
'diseases of affluence'. But is this a misleading term? It suggests that
these are not major problems for the world's poor, which is quite simply
wrong, as this issue of Insight Health illustrates. Is it time to rethink
policy on NCDs?

The latest research and news on health issues in developing countries.

Media Monitoring Project, Zimbabwe.

Environmental pressure groups who say that eco-tourism has failed on the basis of its own principles, are advocating for a speedy review of the concept if the world's biodiversity is to be preserved and mounting poverty alleviated.

Tagged under: 17, Contributor, Environment, Resources

President Sam Nujoma yesterday accused some donor countries of attempting to impose their governments' "policies and culture" as a precondition to granting aid. In his State of the Nation address to parliament, Nujoma said Namibia would not accept aid "with strings attached".

Kenyan reform derailed before Leakey left: Nairobi's anti-corruption strategy was already in retreat, but the government may still persuade the international community to keep giving.

News Update asked 25 individuals and organisations drawn from development agencies, the private sector, NGOs and trusts involved in digital development in Africa to make suggestions about things that African governments (or others) could do for little or money to encourage digital development. There was almost a complete consensus on the kinds of things they felt ought to be done.

The Chapter 2 Network is a clearinghouse of information and communication
for social justice issues in South Africa. Through its website, it provides
information about advocacy campaigns; training on Advocacy and lobbying,
including learning practical skills through the Advocacy game; research on
political intelligence, policy analysis and legislation monitoring and networking opportunities to interact with other civil society organisations who are engaged in social justice advocacy.

International IDEA Democracy Forum 2001: Democracy and the Information
Revolution, June 27-29 2001, Stockholm, Sweden. By combining a focus on key practical issues with exposure to the latest cutting edge research in the ICT field, the Democracy Forum 2001 will provide a unique opportunity for all concerned with the societal implications of the IT revolution - from academics, ICT specialists and business leaders, to election managers, development experts and politicians - to come together to debate, reflect and develop creative policy options for the future.

The Digital Governance website was launched a month back to explore
INNOVATIVE e-Governance Models in South based on the application of Knowledge Management principles and Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The website is a part of the KnowNet Initiative which harnesses the potential of ICT and Remote Volunteering to catalyse Human Development.

Amnesty International today called for a vigorous international presence in Guinea to protect hundreds of thousands of Sierra Leonean and Liberian refugees and Guinean civilians caught in a vicious six-month old insurgency in Guinea.

Officials of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) said they considered the privatization of the Egyptian state-owned banks not important as the country's banking system depends largely on these banks' power and competition, on the contrary the privatization may yield adverse outcomes if the government gives up these significant tool in controlling the monetary policy.

COSATU has submitted its views on the E-Commerce Green Paper, which examines issues around the growth of information and communications technologies (ICTs) in the economy. The federation is concerned at the failure of what was purported to be a participatory process that was supposed to be “consultative, transparent and [balancing] the interests of the broader spectrum of stakeholders (sic)”. From the outset there was an overwhelming bias in favour of legal, contractual and business issues, rather than issues of concern to organised labour, reflected even in the sub-title, "Making it your Business”.

Great Issue!!! -- perhaps a bit long? Congratulations -- and thanks for the editorial on Money Laundering.

I take this opportunity to thank you for sending useful information to me who stand on behalf of my organisation. Thanks a lot.

The Senate agreed last night that the United States should double current spending on the global battle against HIV/AIDS to more than $1 billion within the next two years.

New information and new resources from the Foundation Center, Washington, DC.

Two companies at the centre of the probe into the multibillion-rand arms deal have just added another lucrative deal to their portfolios. Futuristic Business Solutions (FBS) and African Defence Systems (ADS) are now the black empowerment partners of Agusta SpA, the company that won, in controversial circumstances, the contract to supply helicopters to the South African Air Force.

Tagged under: 17, Contributor, Corruption, Governance

The premier index to Family and Social Welfare topics FREE ACCESS over the Internet until April 30, 2001. Family & Society Studies Worldwide is a core resource in NISC's series of databases on family and gender related topics. FSSW is useful for social workers, marriage & family counsellor, family practitioners, social scientists, sociologists, psychologists, and organizations & services dedicated to the Family -- a "must have" for any degree granting institution in these fields.

Tagged under: 17, Contributor, Education, Resources

Proceedings of the Council of Ministers of Water Affairs of the Nile Basin States (Nile-COM) who held an Extraordinary Meeting in Khartoum, Sudan, on March 28-29, 2001.

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